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정신건강 용어 해설

 


FACT ABOUT SUICIDE. SUICIDE PREVENTION ( 자살과 자살 방지에 대한 상식) 

  • 9

    주요 우울증의 원인( Causes of Major Depression)

    1.유전적 요인: 가족 중 우울증 병력을 가진 사람이 있는 경우 우울증이 발생할 가능성이 높다. 하지만, 유전                적인 요인만으로는 우울증을 일으키지는 않는다.

    2.심리적 요인: 그동안 여러 문제점등을 어떻게 다루어 왔는지가 우울증의 원인으로 작용할 수 있다. 만약 당           신이 당신의 의견은 별로 없고 걱정을 많이 한다든지, 또는 다른 사람에게 심하게 의존적이라든지,           또는 자신과 다른 사람에 대해 지나치게 완벽주의를 추구하거나 기대가 너무 높다든지, 

             또는 당신의 감정을 숨기는 경향이 있는 사람이라면, 당신은 우울증에 걸릴 위험률이 높을 수 있다.

    3. 인생의 사건들: 어렸을 때의 정신적인 충격, 부모의 죽음 또는 이별, 성인이 겪을 수 있는 사건들(사랑하               는 사람을 잃었다든지, 이혼, 실업, 은퇴, 심각한 재정적인 어려움, 가족간의 갈등 등)이 우울증을             발병시킬 수 있다.

    4. 생물학적 요인: 뇌 속의 호르몬이나 화학물질의 불균형이 우울증의 원인이 되기도 한다.

     

     

    What causes Major Depression?

    1. Genetics: People with a history of depression in their family have a slightly higher chance of                           becoming depressed. However, genetics alone does not cause depression.

     

    2. Psychology: The way you have learned to deal with problems, may contribute to depression. If you are the type of person who has a low opinion of yourself and worries a lot, if you are overly dependent on others, if you are a perfectionist and expect too much from yourself or others, or if you tend to hide your feelings, you may be at greater risk of becoming depressed.

     

    3. Life Events: Early childhood trauma and losses (such as the death or separation of parents) or adult life events (such as the death of a loved one, divorce, loss of a job, retirement, serious financial problems and family conflict) can lead to depression.

     

    4. Biological Factors: Hormonal or chemical imbalances in the brain may cause depression.

     

     

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  • 8

    우울증의 치료방법들(Treatments For Depression)

    1. 이야기 치료

    심리치료를 전공한 전문의와 우울증 환자가 이야기하는 것 (다른 말로 이야기치료로 알려져 있다) 이 도움이 된다. 이 치료방법은 감정을 표현하고 의논함으로써 가지고 있는 문제등을 해소하도록 도우며, 우울증의 원인이 되어 온 태도, 행동과 습관등을 변화시키도록 돕는 치료법이다. 이야기치료의 다양한 모델을 훈련받아 온 의사, 소셜워커, 심리학자 또는 다른 정신건강 분야에서일하는 전문가들에게 상담받을 수 있다. 과학적인 연구에 의하면 두 가지 종류의 이야기치료가우울증을 다루는 데 효과적이라고 보여진다. 하나는 대인관계치료법으로 이 방법은 타인과의 관계가 어떻게 우울증에 영향을 미쳐왔는지를 살펴보는 것이다.

     

     또 다른 하나의 치료법은 인지행동치료법이다. 이 치료방법은 사람들로 하여금 그들의 부정적인생각과 행동이 우울증에 어떻게 영향을 미치고 있는지를 보도록 도와준다. 부정적인 생각의 예로는 “나는 아무런 가치도 없고 쓸모없는 사람이다”, “아무도 나를 좋아하지 않는다”, 또는 “나에겐 미래가 없다” 등이다. 부정적인 행동의 예를 들자면 사람들과의 사회적인 관계를 회피한다든지 좋아하던 활동을 줄이는 것과 같은 것이다. 인지행동치료법은 사람들에게 이러한 부정적인생각과 행동을 어떻게 바꿀 수 있는지 가르쳐 준다.

     

     2. 약물치료

    소위 항우울제라고 불리는 약물치료는 우울증 치료에 많이 쓰인다. 의사에게 약물치료와 그의부작용에 대하여 편안하게 질문하는 것이 가장 중요하다. 어떤 사람들은 약물에 중독되거나 너무 의존하게 될까 두려워하기도 한다. 항우울제는 중독되지 않는다. 많은 사람들이 항우울제를복용하는 것이 자신의 약함을 보이는 것이라고 믿기도 한다. 우울증은 의학적 질병으로 치료를받지 않으면 심각하게 악화되고 심지어 생명을 위협하게 되기도 한다. 모든 약물치료법은 어느정도 부작용을 가지고 있다.

      항우울제의 일반적인 부작용으로는 두통, 메스꺼움, 입이 마름, 불면증, 불안 고조, 졸림 그리고성적활동의 지장을 주는 등이다. 약물을 계속 복용하게 되면 두통이나 메스꺼움 그리고 불안 고조등과 같은 부작용은 줄어들게 될 것이다. 만약 부작용으로 고생을 하고 있다면 갑자기 약을 중단하지 말고 담당의사와 상의하는 것이 중요하다. 복용하던 약을 갑자기 중단하는 것은 특이 반응등을 일으킬 수 있기 때문이다.

    약물치료로 가장 큰 효과를 얻기 위해서 의사가 약의 용량을 점차적으로 늘려서 치료효과가 나타나는 수준까지 증가시킬 수 있다. 바로 효과를 보는 다른 약들과는 달리 항우울제는 주로 2주이상이 지나야 효과가 나타난다. 

      

    의사가 환자에게 최소한의 부작용과 최대의 치료효과를 보는 항우울제를 찾기 위해서 2가지 다른 항우울제를 처방하기도 한다. 한 약이 우울증에 효과를 보기 시작하면, 환자는 재발을 방지하기 위해 그 약을 1년 또는 그 이상 복용할 것을 권유받게 된다.

    3. 다른 치료법

    아직 과학적으로는 증명되지 않았지만 치료에 도움이 되는 다른 방법들도 있다. 문제해결능력을배우는 것 또는 자신의 의견을 확고하게 말하는 법등도 도움이 된다. 골고루 영양을 섭취하고 운동하고 명상하는 등 생활습관을 바꾸는 것도 도움이 된다.

    4. 가족들을 위한 도움

    가족 중에 우울증을 앓고 있는 환자를 본다는 것은 당신을 슬프게, 두렵게, 무능하고 걱정스럽게만들기도 한다. 당신은 죄책감, 화, 좌절감등을 경험할 수도 있다. 우울증에 대한 정보가 없으면당신은 당신가족이 게으르다고 생각해서 서슴없이 충고를 하기도 하고, 당신의 충고대로 따르지않았을 때 굉장히 실망하게 되기도 한다.

    우울증을 앓고 있는 가족이 자살에 대해 말한다면 당신은 엄청난 근심과 걱정으로 살아가게 될것이다. 가족들은 우울증에 대하여 알 수 있는 한 많은 지식을 필요로 한다. 지식과 이해가 당신의 아픈 가족을 잘 도와줄 수 있고 당신의 감정 또한 잘 다스릴 수 있다. 우울증에 대한 정보는 의사, 소셜워커 또는 다른 정신건강에 관련된 전문가들에게서 얻을 수 있다. 

     

    중등정도의 우울증이 걸린 환자들은 도움이 되는 제안을 들을 수는 있지만, 당신의 충고를 따라행동하기는 쉽지 않다. 무엇이 우울하게 만들었는지에 대해 자꾸 묻는 것을 삼가해야 된다. 그들이 느끼는 방법에 대해 비난하지도 말아야 하며, 빨리 그 우울함에서 벗어나라고 말하는 것도 피해야…

  • 7

    정신분열증의 증상들(symptoms of schizophrenia)

    정신분열증의 증상들 

    정신분열증은 증상이 나타날 때 그 사람의 생각, 행동과 반응에 영향을 미치게 된다. 정신분열 증상을 3가지로 나눌 수 있다: 양성증상, 분열증상, 음성증상

     

    1. 양성증상 (Positive Symptoms) :

    정상적으로는 있지 말아야 되는 증상을 가진 것을 말한다. 양성증상을 때로 정신이상이라고 부르는 데 왜냐하면 환자들이 중요한 부분에서 현실과 동떨어져 있기 때문이다. 양성증상의 주요 증상은 다음과 같다:

    • 망상 (Delusion) : 정신분열환자들은 때때로 거짓이거나/비현실적인 신념을 가지고 있다. 그들의 신념은 다른 사람들이 자신의 생각을 읽는다든지, 자신을 조정하고 있다든지, 또는 그들이 다른 사람들의 마음을 조정할 수 있다고 믿는 것등이다.

    • 환각 (Hallucination) : 실제로 존재하지 않는 것을 듣는다든지 본다든지, 냄새를 맡는다든지 느낀다든지 하는 증상을 말한다.

    2. 분열증상 (Disorganized Symptoms) :

    • 생각과 말: 정신분열을 가진 환자들은 때때로 조리있게 문장을 표현하거나 대화를 이어가지 못한다.

    • 행동: 정신분열은 사람을 천천히 움직이게 하거나, 같은 행동을 규칙적으로 반복하거나 의식적인 행위를 하게 하기도 한다.

    • 지각통찰력: 정신분열 환자는 때로 매일 보고 듣고 느끼는 것을 이해하는 데 어려움을 갖을 수 있다. 그들을 둘러싸고 있는 지각통찰력이 왜곡되어서 평범하던 것이 이상하거나 두렵게 보여지기도 한다. 주변의 소음이나 색깔, 모양등에 지나치게 예민해질 수 있다.

    3. 음성증상 (Negative Symptoms) :

    음성증상은 꼭 있어야 하는 특성의 부족을 의미한다. 이 증상은 양성증상처럼 두드러지지는 않아도 환자의 기능에 심각하게 영향을 미친다.

    • 감정이 없어 전혀 표현이 안되는 경우: 정신분열증은 자신의 감정을 분명하게 설명하는데 어려움을 주기도 한다. 같은 톤으로 말을 한다거나 얼굴에 표정이 없어지기도 한다.

    • 의욕과 에너지 결여: 정신분열 환자들은 기운이 없거나 어떤 새로운 계획을 시작하는 데 어려움을 겪거나 끝마치는 것이 어렵다. 심한 경우에는 목욕을 하거나 옷을 갈아입는 것과 같은 단순한 일조차 지속적으로 알려주어야 한다.

    • 흥미의 결여: 정신분열 환자들은 주변의 것들에 흥미나 기쁨을 느끼지 못하기도 하고 심지어 자신이 좋아하던 것조차 흥미를 잃어버린다. 집밖으로 나가려고 하지도 않으며 어떤 일을 하려고도 하지 않을 수 있다.

    • 언어의 제한: 말이 간단해지고 내용이 없어진다. 종종 지속적인 대화를 하거나 새로운 것을 말하는 데 어려움을 겪는다.

     

    What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?

    Schizophrenia affects the way people think, behave and react, when they are influenced by its active symptoms. Schizophrenic symptoms can be divided into three categories: positive symptoms, disorganized symptoms, and negative symptoms.

     

     

    1. Positive symptoms: This refers to having symptoms that ordinarily should not be there. Positive symptoms are sometimes called psychotic symptoms since the patient has lost touch with reality in certain important ways. 

    Some of the positive symptoms are:

     Delusions: A false/unreal belief that people with schizophrenia sometimes have. Their belief may be that people are reading their thoughts, that someone is plotting against them, or that they can control other people’s minds.

    Hallucinations: This refers to hearing, seeing, smelling, or feelings that are not there. 

     

    2. Disorganized symptoms:

     

     Thought and speech: People with schizophrenia sometimes have trouble communicating in coherent sentences or carrying on a conversation.

     Behaviour: Schizophrenia can cause people to move more slowly, repeat rhythmic gestures, or make ritualistic movements.

     Perceptions: People with schizophrenia sometimes have a hard time making sense of everyday sights, sounds, and feelings. Their perception of what is going on around them may be distorted so that ordinary things appear distracting or frightening. They may be extra-sensitive to background noises and colors and shapes.

     

    3. Negative symptoms: Negative refers to a lack of certain characteristics that should be there. The symptoms are not as dramatic as positive symptoms, but they can interfere significantly with the person’s functioning.

      

    Flat/blunted emotions: schizophr…

  • 6

    정신분열증의 치료(Schizophrenia treat)

    정신분열의 증상은 나타났다가 사라졌다가 하지만, 정신이상 증상이 급격하게 나타날 때는 빨리 치료를 받아야 한다. 급성치료는 현재 나타난 정신이상 증상을 사라자게 하는데 중점을 둔다. 급성치료는 병원입원을 포함한다.

    증상이 대부분 조절된 후에는 앞으로의 정신이상 증상을 방지하고 일상적인 기능을 개선하기 위해 지속적인 치료가 장기간 계속되어져야 한다.  지속적인 치료단계에서 환자에게 계속 증상이 나타날 수도 있고 그렇지 않을 수 있다. 성공적인 치료방법으로는 약물복용, 심리치료와 재활훈련등이 있다.

    1. 항정신이상제 약물복용: 급성과 지속적 치료단계 모두 약물복용이 필수적이다. 급성치료단계에서 약물은 급성적으로 나타난 정신이상 증상을 개선하는 데 도움을 준다. 급성치료단계가 끝나고 나면, 지속적인 항정신이상제 약물복용을 통해 재발을 방지할 수 있다. 약물복용은 부작용을 수반할 수 있으므로 약물을 처방한 의사와 약에 대해 의논하는 것이 중요하다.

    2. 심리치료: 심리치료는 정신분열을 가진 환자는 자신의 병과 증상에 어떻게 대처해야 되는 지를 배우도록 도와주며 정신적인 도움을 갖도록 해준다.

    3. 심리적 재활훈련: 이 방법은 정신질환을 앓고 있는 환자가 일상적인 생활을 잘 할 수 있는 능력을 증진시키는데 중점을 둔다.

     

     

    how is schizophrenia treated?

    Symptoms of schizophrenia can come and go. They are active in a psychotic episode and require acute treatment. Acute treatment is aimed at ending the current acute psychotic episode. 

     

    It may include hospitalization. 

     

    When the symptoms are mostly controlled, maintenance treatment is continued on a long term basis to improve functioning and prevent future psychotic episodes. 

     

    The person may or may not have persistent symptoms during this phase of maintenance treatment. 

    Successful treatment involves the use of medication, psychotherapy and rehabilitation.

     

    Anti-psychotic medication: Medication is necessary in both the acute and maintenance treatment phase. During the acute phase, medications help relieve the acute psychotic symptoms. After the acute phase, ongoing anti-psychotic medication greatly reduces the chance of relapse. Medication may cause side effects. It is important to discuss medication with the doctor who prescribes it.

     

    Psychotherapy: It helps persons with schizophrenia learn about their illness and develop coping skills, and have emotional support.

     

    Psychosocial rehabilitation: It aims to enhance the abilities of persons with mental illness in their daily living.

     

     

     

  • 5

    스트레스의 정의(What is Stress)

    가족, 학교, 직장, 관계, 건강, 사회적 환경, 물리적 환경, 그리고 생존: 생활비 벌기- 2002년 온타리오 여성건강 모임에서 제공

    • 스트레스는 “변화”에 대한 신체적 정신적인 반응을 의미한다. 변화라는 것은 어떤 한가지 것, 형태, 국면, 장소 또는 상태에서 다른 것으로 바뀌어가는 것을 의미한다. 변화는 삶에 있어서 자연스런 부분이다.

    • 스트레스의 요인들은 현존하는 현실, 예견, 기대하지 못했던 것들, 상상했던 것들, 사건들 그리고 상황들을 일컬으며 이들이 변화를 가져다 준다.

    • 기대했거나 바랬던 변화는 종종 긍정적인 스트레스 요인으로 보여진다. 긍정적인 스트레스 요인은 도전을 가져오기도 하지만 동기나 힘의 원천이 되어주기도 한다. (예를 들어 계획한 축하연 또는 방학/휴가)

    • 기대하지 못했거나 바라지도 않았던, 또는 강제로 겪어야 하는 변화는 부정적인 요인으로 보여진다. 부정적인 스트레스 요인은 걱정, 화 또는 슬픔을 가져다 준다. (예를 들어 직장의 변화, 사랑하는 사람의 죽음 등)

    • 스트레스 요인은 다음에 지장을 준다

    o 신체 (예: 바이러스 감염, 부상 또는 과로) & 정신 (인지된 위험 또는 흥분)

    o 감정 (예: 논쟁, 갈등)

    o 환경 (예: 매우 심한 소음, 극도의 더위 또는 혹한) 그리고

    o 상황 (예: 곰에게 쫓기는 것, 직장의 변화 또는 이민)

    우리 건강에 영향을 미치는 스트레스는 우리가 스트레스 요인을 어떻게 인지하고 거기에 어떻게 반응하느냐에 달려있다. 어떤 특정한 스트레스 요인이 어떤 사람에게는 긍정적인 요인으로 보여지기도 하고 어떤 사람에게는 부정적인 것으로 받아들여질 수 있기 때문이다. (예: 대중앞에서의 연설 또는 비행 여행)

     

    변화는 필수불가결한 것이다. 변화의 균형과 시종일관적 자세가 우리 삶의 조화와 건강에 큰 영향력을 끼친다.

     

     WHAT IS STRESS?

     

    Family, School, Work, Relationships, Health, Social Environment, Physical Environment, and Survival: Making a Living

    Funded by Ontario Women’s Health Council Copyright ©2002

     

     

    Stress is the response of our body and mind to “CHANGE”. Change is the going from one thing, form, phase, place or state to another. Change is the natural part of living.

     

    Stressors are the ever-present real, anticipated, unexpected, imagined element objects, events and circumstances that bring about change 

     

    Anticipated and desired change is often considered positive stressors. Positive stressors bring challenges but also motivation and energy (e.g. a planned celebration or vacation). 

     

    Unexpected, undesired or forced change is considered negative. Negative stressors bring worries, anger and grief (e.g. a job transfer, or the loss of a loved one). 

     

    Stressors can be related to:

     

    Our physical body (e.g. a viral infection, an injury or overwork);

    Our mind (e.g. perceived danger or excitement);

     

    Our emotions (e.g. argument, conflicts)

     

    Our environment (e.g. high noise level, extreme heat or extreme cold); and

    Situational (e.g. being chased by a bear, a job change or migration).

     

     

    The impact of stress on our health is dependent on how we perceive or react to the stressors. A specific stress or may be considered positive to some people but negative to others (e.g. public speaking or air travel).

     

    Change is unavoidable. A balance of change and constancy contributes to harmony & well-being.

     

    -----------------------------------

     

  • 4

    스트레스를 받을 때 나타나는 현상(What happen When we Encounter Stress)

    스트레스를 받게 되면, 우리는 즉시 일어난 상황에 대해 판단하게 된다. 만약 그 상황을 “위험하다” 또는 “빨리 행동을 취할 필요가 있다” 라고 인지하게 되면, 우리의 몸은 그에 따른 연쇄반응을 하게 된다. 뇌가 아드레날린과 다른 스트레스관련 호르몬등을 분비하라고 신호를 보내게 된다.

    이러한 스트레스관련 호르몬등은 우리가 스트레스에 맞서 “싸울것인지 아님 도망갈 것인지”를 준비하도록 변화를 가져다 준다—예를 들어 심장박동수가 빨라진다든지, 호흡이 가빠진다든지, 좀더 긴장하게 되거나,  보다 많은 에너지 소모를 위해 몸 안에 축적된 당과 지방을 내보낸다든지,  뇌와 근육에 많은 양의 혈액이 공급된다든지, 그 외 다른 신체 기능이 저하된다든지 등이다.

    스트레스가 해소되면, 우리의 신체 기능은 자연스럽게 정상적인 상태로 되돌아온다.

     

    우리가 너무 많은 스트레스를 받거나 장기간 지속될 때에는 우리의 몸은 건강을 유지하기 위한 필수적인 휴식이나 안정을 취할수 없게 된다. 심각하고 만성적이며 누적된 스트레스는 여러 질병과 심지어 사망의 원인이 될 수도 있다.

     

    WHAT HAPPEN WHEN WE ENCOUNTER STRESS?

     

    When we encounter stress, we immediately evaluate the situation. When we perceive “danger” or “needs for actions”, our body starts off a chain-reaction. The brain signals the production of Adrenalin and other stress hormones. 

     

    These stress hormones bring changes that prepare us to “fight or flee” – our heart beat faster, we breathe faster, we are more alert, our body release stored sugar and fat for energy, more blood flows to our brain and muscle, and our other body systems down. 

     

    When the stress is resolved, our body returns to its natural or normal state.

     

    When we have too much stress or persisting stress, our body cannot get the necessary rest and relief to stay healthy.

    Severe, chronic and cumulative stress can lead to illnesses and even death.


  • 3

    스트레스가 건강에 미치는 영향(How Does Stress Impact On Our Health?

    우리가 지속적으로 스트레스를 받게 되면, 우리의 몸은 계속해서 스트레스에 맞서 “싸우거나 도망치는” 반응을 유지하려고 노력한다. 이러한 본능적인 반응은 우리 몸의 각 조직과 기관들에 영향을 미친다. 만약 그 때 우리 몸이 요구하는 수준까지 따라주지 못한다면 우리는 병이 나게 된다.

     

    근육기능: 근육은 이완과 수축작용을 하도록 되어있다; 스트레스를 받으면 근육은 이완되지 못하고 피곤을 느낀다거나 다칠 수 있다.   증상: 요통, 다리 경련, 턱, 목 그리고 어깨의 통증, 긴장성 두통, 근육통, 오한이나 떨림 등이다.

    면역기능: 지속적인 스트레스는 우리의 면역기능을 약화시켜주고 질병에 대항하여 싸우는 저항력을 감소시킨다.  증상: 여드름, 감기/독감, 입안의 염증, 헤르페스(포진), 피부발진, 천식, 알러지, 질염, 그리고 암 등이다.

    비중추기능: 스트레스를 받으면, 비중추기능(소화, 비뇨기)에 에너지와 산송의 공급이 줄어들게 되며 결국은 그 기능을 저하시키게 된다.  증상: 속쓰림, 소화불량, 대장염, 크론병(궤양성 대장염), 메스꺼움, 수분저류(몸 밖으로 수분이 나가지 못하여 몸이 붓는 증상), 체중 증가 및 감소, 설사, 변비, 이뇨 장애, 성기능 장애등이다.

    중추기능: 스트레스 호르몬은 심장박동에 작용하여 혈관을 압박 또는 수축시킨다.  증상: 가슴통증, 현기증, 고혈압, 편두통, 뇌졸증, 심장병, 빠른 심장박동, 호흡곤란, 손발의 차가움 등이다.

    호르몬기능: 스트레스 호르몬은 에너지를 빨리 내보내기 위해서 우리 몸에 있는 호르몬 분비선에 영향을 미치고 결국은 호르몬 기능이 정상적인 기능을 하지 못하도록 한다.  증상: 관절염, 당뇨병, 불임, 성욕 저하, 생리불순 등이다.

    감정기능:  스트레스는 우리 뇌 안에서 화학적인 반응에 영향을 끼치고 우리의 감정을 강하게 조절한다.  증상: 분노, 불안, 죄의식, 우울, 초조, 질투, 걱정,  좌절, 공황 발작, 불안정 등이다.

    인지기능: 우리의 뇌는 스트레스를 받으면 과민반응을 하게 되고 낮은 수준의 스트레스 호르몬에도 쉽게 자극을 받게 된다.  증상: 지루함, 에너지 감소, 판단력의 저하, 끊임없는 잡념, 불면증, 악몽, 편견과 집착, 불안 초조, 피곤, 조급함, 불신 등이다.

     


    HOW DOES STRESS IMPACT ON OUR HEALTH?

    When we experience persisting stress, our body tries to maintain the fight-or-flee response. This instinctive response affects every single system in our body. In time, our body is unable to meet the demands and we become ill.

     

    Muscular system: Muscles are designed to tense and relax; under stress, the muscles may not relax and become fatigued or injured. Symptoms: Back pain, leg cramps, jaw pain, neck and shoulder pain, tension headaches, muscle aches, trembling or shaking…

     

    Immune system: Constant stress depresses our immune systems and reduces our ability to fight infections. Symptoms: Acne, colds/flus, sores in mouth, herpes, skin rash, asthma, allergies, yeast infection, cancer…

     

    Non-Vital system: Under stress, less supply of energy and oxygen is sent to the non-vital systems (digestive, urinary) which slow down and eventually become weakened. Symptoms: Heartburn, indigestion, colitis, Chron’s Disease, nausea, water retention, weight gain or loss, diarrhea, constipation, urination difficulties, sexual dysfunction…

     

    Vital system: Stress hormones make the heart pump and cause the blood vessels to constrict. Symptoms: chest pain, dizziness, high blood pressure, migraine, strokes, heart disease, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, cold hands or feet…

     

    Hormonal System: Stress hormones act on other glands in our body to release quick energy; eventually, the hormonal system cannot function normally. Symptoms: arthritic joint pain, diabetes, infertility, lowered sexual desire, menstrual difficulties.

     

    Emotional system: Stress affects chemical reactions in our brain and intensifies our emotions. Symptoms: anger, anxiety, guilt, depression, restless, jealousy, worries, hopelessness, panic attacks, insecurity…

     

    Cognitive System: Our brain becomes hyperactive under stress, and in time, it becomes easily stimulated even with lower levels of stress hormones. Symptoms: boredom, low energy, poor judgment, racing thoughts, insomnia, nightmares, preoccupation, restlessness, fatigue, irritability, and distrust…

     

     


  • 2

    스트레스, 감정, 건강과의 연관성(Stress, Emotions And Health - What's The …

    감정의정의

    감정은 우리가 어떤 특정 상황(스트레스 유발 요인)에 대하여 반응하는 방법을 말한다. 우리의 과거 경험이나 개인이 부여하는 의미에 따라 감정에 대한 반응이 다르게 나타난다. 예를 들어 감정표현, 얼굴이나 신체로 하는 표현과 우리 신체 내부 안에서 일어나는 변화등이다.

    어떤 종류의 감정 반응들은 살아가는 데 있어 아주 필수적이라고 믿는다.

    예를 들어 위험에 대하여 공포를 느끼는 것은 우리가 “싸울 것인지 도망갈 것인지”를 결정하게 함으로써 해로부터 우리 자신을 보호하게 해 주고, 사랑이라는 느낌은 사람과 사람들 사이를 연결해 주는 데 아주 중요하다.

     

    감정과건강과의관계

    스트레스와 마찬가지로 감정은 우리 건강에 중요한 역할을 하고 있다. 연구에 따르면, 긍정적인 감정들 (예를 들어, 기쁨, 흥미 그리고 만족등)은 건강에 유익한 반면에, 부정적인 감정들 (예를 들어, 분노, 슬픔 또는 죄의식 등)은 질병을 유발하거나 건강을 악화시킬 수 있다고 한다.

     

    좋은소식: 연구자료에의하면, 많은총체적인건강관리법은스트레스의부정적인면을줄이고우리의건강과웰빙을유지하고증진하는데도움을주는긍정적인감정들을갖도록도와준다고한다.

     

     

    STRESS, EMOTIONS AND HEALTH - WHAT'S THE LINK?

     

    Since life is change, stress is an unavoidable and natural part of living. We all experience stress daily, but each of us responds to stress differently.

     

    Our ability to handle stress depends on:

     

     

    Our biological threshold for stress

     

    Our age and health status

     

    The meaning and significance we assign to the stressors

     

    The number and intensity of the stressors

     

    Our ability and skills in dealing with the stressors

     

    Our habitual response (emotions and reactions) to stress

     

    Our personality and perspectives towards life

     

    Our health practice (healthy eating, active living, relaxation, etc.)

     

     

     

    WHAT ARE EMOTIONS?

     

    Emotions are the ways we tend to respond to specific situations (stressors). Our past experiences and personal meanings influence our emotional response, which includes our feelings, facial and outer expressions, and the changes inside our body. 

     

    It is believed that some emotional responses are essential for survivals. 

     

    For example, fear in response to danger helps to trigger our fight-or-flee responses and keep us from harm; and love is essential for bonding between individuals.

     


    WHAT DOES EMOTION HAVE TO DO WITH HEALTH?

     

    Like stress, emotions play an important role in our health. Research shows that positive emotions (e.g. joy, interest & contentment) contribute to better health while negative emotions (e.g. anger, sadness & guilt) lead to illnesses and poorer health. 

     

    Since stress intensifies our emotions, persisting negative stressors tend to reinforce negative emotions and lead to serious health problems.

     

    Good News: Research also shows that many holistic health practices can help us to reduce the negative impact of stress and build up positive emotions to promote and maintain our health and well-being.

     

     

     

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    스트레스를 줄이고 감정의 건강을 증진하기 위한 방법(Holistic health practice)

    우리의 건강은 개인차, 환경적 그리고 사회적인 요인들에 의해 영향을 받는다. 우리의 모든 건강 요인들을 통제할 수 없지만, 우리는 개인 능력을 개발할 수 있고 총체적인 건강관리법은 스트레스의 부정적인 면을 줄이고 건강을 증진할 수 있도록 한다.

     

     

    총체적인 건강 관리법

    총체적인 건강관리법은 우리의 스트레스와 관련된 몸의 과민반응을 줄일 수 있도록 도와주는 일련의 전략법이다. 이 방법은 우리의 신체기능이 긍정적인 감정들을 발견하고 증진하도록 만들어준다. 마치 부정적인 스트레스 요인들과 감정들을 중화시켜주는 저수지와 같은 역할을 하면서 우리가 건강할 수 있도록 유지시켜준다.

    1. 조용한 묵상의 시간: 묵상의 시간은 우리의 마음을 가라앉도록 도와주며 스트레스로부터 벗어날 수 있도록 한다. 예를 들자면,  목욕, 독서와 음악감상등이다.

    2. 심호흡: 심호흡은 우리의 몸과 마음을 안정시키고 원활한 혈액순환을 도와주며 스트레스를 다루는 우리의 능력을 증진시킨다.

    3. 운동, 스트레칭 그리고 즐거운 시간 갖기: 규칙적인 운동은 우리의 신체의 지구력을 향상시키고 산소와 혈액순환을 증가시키며,  뇌와 우리 각 신체의 부분에 필요한 영양소를 공급한다. 스트레칭은 근육과 힘줄의 유연성과 관절의 운동성을 증가시킨다.

    4. 건강한 식습관: 카페인, 알코올, 니코틴, 지방, 염분, 설탕 그리고 지나치게 맵거나 신 음식, 튀긴 음식등의 섭취는 줄이거나 피해야 한다. 카페인은 혈관을 수축시켜서 편두통이나 고혈압의 원인이 될 수 있다; 지나치게 맵거나 신 음식의 섭취는 소화기능에 자극을 주거나 염증을 일으킬 수 있다; 알코올과 약물중독은 우울증을 악화시킨다. 하루에 적어도 8잔의 물을 마셔라. 곡물, 야채와 과일, 유제품과 육류 또는 대체식품등을 골고루 섭취하도록 해야 한다. 건강한 식생활은 면역기능을 도와 손상된 세포들을 다시 회복시켜준다. (캐나다 음식 안내서에서 참조) 

    5. 바른 자세: 서 있거나 앉아 있을 때의 바른 자세는 근육의 이완을 돕는다. (의사, 인간공학 전문의, 척추교정전문가나 기타 서비스 상담가등과 상담한다) 

    6. 점진적인 근육이완법: 우리 신체의 특정 근육들의 수축과 이완은 긴장을 푸는데 도움이 되고 지친 근육에 많은 양의 혈액과 산소를 공급하도록 돕는다.

    7. 마사지: 마사지나 찜질은 혈액순환을 증가시켜 긴장되고 뭉친 근육을 풀어주고 근육통을 완화시키는 데 도움이 된다.

    8. 명상: 명상은 우리의 호흡이나 근육 그리고 어떤 대상에 적극적으로 집중함으로써 우리의 마음을 차분하게 해준다. 명상은 마음챙김(Mindfulness)을 증가시킨다—즉 지금 현 순간에 대한 비판단적인 의식을 말한다. 명상은 스트레스 호르몬등을 감소시키고 우리의 근육을 이완시키며, 뇌의 기능을 향상시키고 우리의 신체, 몸과 정신의 건강을 증진시킨다.

    9. 유도된 심상요법: 안전하고 평화롭고, 아름답고, 고요하고 행복하다고 여기는 어떤 장면이나 일들 또는 장소등의 이미지를 유도하는 심상요법은  스트레스를 감소하는 데 도움을 준다.

    10. 스트레스 일지: 우리의 스트레스, 반응, 그리고 스트레스를 받았을 때 우리가 어떻게 반응했는지에 대하여 기록하는 것이 최적상태의 스트레스를 찾아낼 수 있도록 도와주고, 스트레스의 원인과 해결방법을 찾는데 도움을 준다.

    11. 긍정적인 사고전환: 부정적인 감정이나 지나친 스트레스는 우리의 인지력에 저하를 가져다 준다. 매 상황을 긍정적인 것으로 전환시키는 것을 배우는 것이 스트레스를 해소하는데  도움이 된다.

    12. 확신: 긍정적인 확신은 부정적인 사고를 전환시켜준다. 다른 총체적인 건강관리법과 함께 이 방법을 사용한다면, 긍정적인 감정과 자신감을 세우는데 도움이 될 것이다.

     

    참고서적:

    유머, 웃음과 쉬는 시간을 갖는 것이 건강을 위해 좋다!!! 우리가 웃을 때, 우리 가슴과 폐가 확장되고 이완된다. 우리의 몸 역시 호르몬을 배출하고 통증을 완화시키게 된다. 웃음은  우리의 신체내부의 각 기관들을 자극하고 혈액순환과 면역체계를 강화시키고 우리의 마음을 편안하게 해준다.

    HOLISTIC HEALTH PRACTICE?

     

    Holistic health practice is a set of strategies that help to slow down our body’s hyperactivities related to stress. They allow our body systems to recover and promote positive emotions, which act as a reservoir to counteract negative stressors and negative emotions and keep us well.

     

    Quiet time: Quiet time helps to calm our mind and allow us to recover from stress. E.g. take a long bath, read a book and listen to music, etc.

    Deep Breathing: Deep breathing calms the body and mind, improves our blood circulation system, and increase our capacity to deal with stress.

    Exercise, Stretching & Having Fun: Regular exercises improve our body endurance; increase oxygen, blood flow and nourish…