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정신건강 용어 해설

 


FACT ABOUT SUICIDE. SUICIDE PREVENTION ( 자살과 자살 방지에 대한 상식) 

  • 24

    정상적인 불안(normal anxiety)

    우리 모두 다 어느정도의 불안을 경험하며 살아간다. 이런 감정들은 당혹감, 무서움, 불안정함, 공포, 긴장, 무서움, 또는 수치심등을 포함한다. 이 모두는 정상적인 감정들이다. 그러나 만약 거의 매일 이런 감정등을 경험하고 이들 때문에 일상적인 생활을 할 수 없다면 불안 장애를 의심해 봐야 한다.

    때때로 불안 장애는 근육팽창, 두통, 가슴이 마구 뜀, 땀에 흠뻑 젖음, 떨림, 숨쉬기 곤란함, 질식할 것같은 느낌, 가슴통증, 위장 장애, 어지러움, 감각의 마비, 손발저림, 안면홍조, 수면 장애, 집중력 감소, 기억력 감퇴 또는 피곤등의 신체적인 증상을 동반하기도 한다.

    만일, 당신이 느끼는 불안의 정도가 너무 심하여 일을 할 수 없거나 가족이나 친구와 어울리지 못한다면, 도움을 받아야 하는 의학적 증상 즉 불안 장애를 겪고 있다고 봐야 한다. 다음의 의학적 증상을 뒷받침할 연구보고가 많이 있다.

     

     

    Everyone experiences some level of anxiety. These feelings may include feeling embarrassed, frightened, insecure, panicky, nervous, scared, or humiliated. These are all normal emotions. 

    However, if you are experiencing these feelings on most days and they are affecting your life, you may be suffering from an Anxiety Disorder. 

    Sometimes, these Anxiety Disorders can cause physical symptoms of muscle tension, headaches, heart palpitations, sweating, trembling, trouble breathing, choking sensations, chest pain, stomach problems, dizziness, numbness, tingling sensations, blushing, sleep problems, concentration problems, memory problems, or fatigue.

    If your anxiety is so severe that you have trouble working or socializing with your friends and family, you may be suffering from a medical condition in which help is available. There is good scientific research available on the following medical conditions.

     

  • 23

    공황 장애 (Panic Disorder)

    당신은 갑작스럽거나 예상치 못한 다음과 같은 공황 장애의 발작을 경험하고 있는가:

    1. 가슴이 마구 뛰고 매우 두근거림

    2. 땀을 많이 흘림

    3. 떨리거나 전율을 느낌

    4. 호흡이 곤란해짐

    5. 목이 졸리고 질식할 것 같은 느낌

    6. 가슴의 통증 또는 답답함

    7. 메스꺼움

    8. 어지럽고 머리가 몽롱해짐

    9. 비현실감 또는 자신이 분리된 것 같은 느낌

    10. 통제를 잃어버리거나 미칠 것 같은 두려움

    11. 죽을 것 같은 공포

    12. 감각의 마비 또는 저린 느낌

    13. 오한이 돌거나 확 달아오름

     

    만약 위의 증상 중 4가지 이상을 갑자기 한번에 느낀다면, 당신은 공황 발작 증상을 갖고 있다고 볼 수 있다. 공황 발작은 여러 상황에서 흔하게 발생하기도 한다. (예를 들어, 어떤 사람이 당신 무릎에 뱀을 던졌다면, 당신은 공황 발작을 일으킬 수 있다)

    많은 사람들이 공황발작을 일으킬 수 있지만, 그것 때문에 지장을 받지는 않는다. 그래서 공황발작은 진료받을 사항으로 고려되지 않을 수도 있다. 그러나, 만약 이러한 공황 발작이 정상적인 생활에 영향을 계속 미치게 된다면, 그때는 공황 장애를 겪고 있다고 볼 수도 있겠다.

    당신이 계속 또 다른 공격을 받을까 두려워하거나, 통제를 잃을 까 두려워하고, 심장발작을 일으킬까 두려워하고, 미쳐버릴까 두려워하며, 또는 또다른 공격을 방지하기 위해 하던 일을 중단하게 된다면, 그 때 당신은 공황 장애라고 불리는 의학적 질병을 겪고 있다고 볼 수 있다. 공황 발작이 생겼을 때 빠져나올 수 없을 거라고 믿기 때문에 어떤 상황에 직면하기를 두려워한다면, 당신은 또한 광장공포증을 겪는다고 볼 수 있다.

    광장공포증이 발생할 수 있는 장소및 상황으로는 지하철, 버스, 쇼핑몰, 가게, 다리, 운전, 극장, 식당, 엘리베이터, 군중, 줄서서 기다릴 때, 혼자 있을 때, 여행할 때 등을 들 수 있다. 대략 인구의 2~5 퍼센트 정도가 공황 장애를 겪는다. 이것은 젊은 성년기에 발생하지만, 나이에 관계없이 발병될 수 있다. 그러나 나이 45세가 넘어서 공황 장애가 발생하는 것은 흔하지 않다. 만약 45세 이후에 갑자기 공황 발작이 생겼다고 의심이 된다면 즉시 가정의를 만나야 한다. 아주 심각한 의료질환일 수 있기 때문이다.

     

     

    Do you suffer from sudden and unexpected bouts of panic symptoms like:

     

    1. Pounding heart. 

    2. Sweating. 

    3. Trembling or shaking. 

    4. Sensations of trouble breathing. 

    5. Feeling of choking. 

    6. Chest pain or discomfort. 

    7. Nausea. 

    8. Dizziness or lightheaded. 

    9. Feeling unreal or detached from your self. 

    10. Fear of losing control or going crazy. 

    11. Fear of dying. 

    12. Numbness or tingling sensations. 

    13. Chills or hot flashes.

     

    If you have 4 or more of these symptoms that suddenly appear all at once, you may be having Panic Attacks. Panic attacks are quite common and can occur in many situations (for example: if someone were to throw snake in your lap, you may get a Panic Attack.). 

     Many people get Panic Attacks and are not bothered by them. Panic Attacks on their own are not considered to be a medical condition. 

     However, if these Panic Attacks begin to influence your life or bother you significantly, you may be suffering Panic Disorder. 

     

    If you are constantly worried about getting another attack, worrying about losing control, worrying about having a heart attack, worrying about going crazy, or stopped doing some things to prevent another attack, you may be suffering from a medical condition called Panic Disorder. If you become afraid of going into certain situations because you think you won't be able to get out if you get a panic attack, you may be suffering from Agoraphobia.

     These places include subways, buses, malls, grocery stores, bridges, driving, grocery stores, movie theatres, restaurants, elevators, crowds, line-ups, being alone, or going out of town. Approximately 2%-5% of the population will suffer from Panic Disorder. It usually develops in young adulthood, but can develop at any age. However, it is unusual to suddenly develop panic attacks after the age of 45. 

     You should see your family doctor right away if just developed panic attacks after 45 years old. It could be a serious medical condition.

     

     

  • 22

    특정 공포증 (Specific Phobia)

    이 공포증은 어떤 사물이나 상황에 대한 지나친 공포를 느끼는 것을 말한다. 특정 동물, 곤충, 높은 곳, 피를 보는 것, 주사 맞는 것, 폭풍, 물, 비행, 엘리베이터, 닫힌 공간, 질식이나 토할 것 같은 공포등을 포함한다. 많은 사람들이 위의 상황등을 경험할 수도 있지만, 이런 공포가 너무 심하여 정상적인 생활이나 가족이나 친구들과의 사회생활에 지장을 주게 된다면, 당신은 아마 공포증에 시달리고 있다고 볼 수 있다.

    특정 공포증은 매우 흔한 증상으로서 인구의 5~10 퍼센트정도가 이 질환을 앓고 있다.

     

    Specific Phobia 

    A phobia is an excessive fear of an object or situation. These include certain animals, insects, heights, seeing blood, injections, storms, water, flying, elevators, enclosed spaces, choking fears or fears of vomit. 

     Many people will experience fear in the above situations. However, if the fear is severe enough that it affects your ability to work or socialize with your friends and family, you may have a Phobia. 

     Specific Phobia's are very common. Approximately 5%-10% of the population has a Specific Phobia.

     

  • 21

    사회 공포증 (Social Phobia)

    사람들 앞에서 어떤 일을 해야 하거나 단순히 사람들이 자신의 주위에 많이 모여 있을 때 두려움이나 불안함을 느껴본 적이 있는가? 당황하거나 창피를 당한다는 것에 대해 두려워하는가? 만약 기회가 된다면 이러한 상황등을 피하려고 하는가? 만약 위 질문에 모두 예란 대답을 했다면, 당신은 사회 공포증을 앓고 있을 수 있다.

     

    사회 공포증은 단순한 수줍음과는 다르다. 수줍음을 타는 것은 정상적인 인간의 특성이며 삶에 있어서 크게 지장을 주지 않는다. 사회 공포증은 일상생활 또는 사회생활에 심각한 지장을 주는 의학적 질병이라 할 수 있다. 대략 인구의 10~15퍼센트 정도가 일생에 적어도 한번 쯤 경험하는 흔한 의학적 증상이다. 주로 십대에 시작된다.

     

     

     Social Phobia  

    Do you feel scared or anxious when you have to do things in front of people or when you are just around people? Are you scared that you may embarrass or humiliate yourself? Would you avoid these social situations if you had the chance? If you answered yes to all these questions, you may be suffering from Social Phobia. 

     

    Social Phobia is more than just shyness. Shyness is a normal human trait and does not interfere significantly with one's life. Social Phobia is a medical condition, which significantly interferes with people's work functioning or social life. 

     It is a common condition that affects approximately 10%-15% of the population at least once in their lives. It usually begins in the teenage years.

     

  • 20

    강박장애 (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder)

    강박관념으로 고생하고 있는가? 강박이란 재차 반복해서 드는 생각, 이미지 또는 충동을 말한다. 예를 들자면, 병균이나 더러움에 오염되었을 것이라는 반복적인 걱정, 문을 안 잠궜거나 가스불을 끄지 않았을 거라는 불안한 생각, 다른 사람을 사고로 해치게 될지도 모른다는 지나친 걱정, 끔직한 종교적/성적/공포등의 이미지 또는 본인의 의지와 상관없이 남을 해칠 지 모른다는 충동등이다.

    강박행위를 경험하고 있는가? 강박행위란 긴장이나 걱정을 해소하기 위해서 특정행동을 계속 반복적으로 하는 행동을 말한다. 강박행위의 예로는 손을 치나치게 씻는다든지, 반복적으로 체크하는 것(예를 들자면, 불, 문, 가전제품, 수도꼭지등), 이유없이 반복적으로 세는 것, 불필요한 물건을 모아두기(영수증, 신문 또는 잡지), 보통사람들이라면 하지 않는 특정의식을 하는 것, 물건들을 완벽하게 줄 맞춰두거나 특정한 방법으로 배열하는 것등을 포함한다.

    만약 당신이 강박관념이나 강박행위때문에 정상적인 생활을 하지 못한다면, 당신은 강박 장애라는 질병을 앓고 있을 수 있다. 대략 인구의 2~3 퍼센트정도가 이 질병을 앓고 있다.

     

     

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 

    Do you suffer from obsessions? Obsessions are recurrent and intrusive thoughts, images or impulses. 

     

    Examples of obsessions include recurrent concerns about being contaminated with germs or dirt, recurrent thoughts that you may not have locked your door or shut off the stove, excessive concerns that you may have hurt someone accidentally, intrusive religious/ sexual / horrific images or impulses to hurt someone you don't want to hurt. 

     

    Do you suffer from compulsions? Compulsions are behaviours you have to do a certain way or over and over again, in order to relieve a sense of tension or anxiety. 

     

    Examples of compulsions include excessive hand washing, repeated checking of things (for example: lights, doors, appliances, faucets), counting things for no reason, hoarding useless items (like bills, papers, or magazines), doing things in a specific ritual that other people do not do, and making sure things are lined up perfectly or placed in a certain way. 

     

    If you have an obsession or compulsion and it bothers you or it significantly interferes with your life you may be suffering from a disease called Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. 

     

    Approximately 2%-3% of the population suffers from this disease.

     

     

     

     

  • 19

    충격 후 스트레스 장애 (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder : PTSD)

    1. 당신은 감당하기 어려울 만큼 정신적으로 충격이 될 만한 사건을 경험한 적이 있는가? 정신적인 충격을 줄 사건들의 예로는 전쟁, 고문, 자연재해 (지진, 홍수 등), 폭행, 강간 또는 심각한 사고등이다.

    2. 당신은 그런 사건이 일어났을 때 극도로 두렵거나 무력함을 느끼고 공포를 경험했었는가?

    3. 이러한 정신적인 충격을 잊을 수가 없는가? 예를 들어 그 상황을 지속적으로 생각하게 되고, 악몽을 꾸게 되고, 때때로 다시 그런 일이 일어날 것처럼 느끼고 그 사건들을 기억할 때 매우 예민해지는 등의 증상을 말한다.

    4. 정신적으로 충격적인 사건을 겪었을 때 당신이 경험한 공포를 다시 유발할지도 모를 요인들을 회피하고 있는가? 감정적으로 무감각함을 느끼는가?

    5. 수면 장애, 쉽게 화를 냄, 집중력 장애, 지속적인 경계, 또는 쉽게 두려워짐을 지속적으로 느끼는가?

    위에 열거한 질문들에 모두 예라고 대답했고, 이런 여러 증상들 때문에 정상적인 일상생활에 어려움을 느낀다면 당신은 충격 후 스트레스 장애라는 질병을 앓고 있다고 볼 수 있다. 만약 그렇다면 가정의와 상담을 해야 한다. 충격 후 스트레스 장애는 치료가 가능하다. 인구의 3% 정도 이 질환을 앓고 있다.

     

     

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 

     

    1. Have you ever experienced an event that was overwhelming and traumatic? Examples of      traumatic events include being in a war, being tortured, being in a natural disaster (earth quake,  flood etc?), assault, rape, or a serious accident. 

    2. Did you feel extremely scared, helpless or horrified when the event was happening?

    3. Do you have difficulties forgetting about the traumatic event? For example, you have constant  thoughts about the situation, nightmares about the event, sometimes feel as if it is happening  again, or get very nervous when something happens that reminds you of the event. 

    4. Do you avoid things that might trigger the fear you experienced during the traumatic event?  Do you feel emotionally numb?

    5. Do you have difficulty with your sleep, get angry easily, have difficulty with your concentration,  constantly on edge watching everything around you, or are you easily scared? 

     

    If you answered yes to all of the above questions and you find that you have difficulties coping with your life because of these symptoms, you may be suffering from a disease 

    called Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. You should talk to your family doctor about this disease if you think that you may have it. There is treatment available. This is a disease

     that can affect up to 3% of the population.

     

     

     

  • 18

    범 불안장애 (Generalized Anxiety Disorder)

    당신은 거의 매일 일상적인 일들에 지나친 걱정을 하고 있는가? 예를 들자면; 경제적으로 괜찮은 데도 불구하고 경제에 대해서 지나치게 걱정하는가? 육체적으로 괜찮은 데도 불구하고 당신의 건강에 대해 지나치게 걱정하는가? 사랑하는 사람이 문제가 없는데도 불구하고 그들의 걱정과 안위에 대해 걱정하는가? 당신은 이러한 걱정들을 통제하는 것이 어려운가? 이러한 걱정들 때문에 신체적인 증상을 앓고 있는가? 신체적 증상이란 피로, 집중력 곤란, 쉽게 짜증냄, 근육 팽창, 수면장애, 또는 안절부절 못하는 증상들을 말한다. 만약 이러한 증상을 느끼고 있다면, 당신은 범 불안장애를 겪고 있다고 볼 수 있다. 범 불안장애는 대략 인구의 5 퍼센트정도에게서 발병할 수 있는 흔한 질환이다. 주로 주요 우울증등과 같은 다른 질병과 함께 앓게 되는 경우가 보통이다.

     

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder 

     

    Do you find yourself worrying excessively about ordinary things almost every day? For example: Do you worry about your finances when they are fine? 

    Do you worry about your health when you are physically o.k? Do you worry about the health and safety of your loved ones when they are fine? 

    Do you find  these worries very difficult to control? Do you suffer from physical symptoms because of these worries? These physical symptoms can include fatigue,  difficulties concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, sleep problems or restlessness/feeling on edge.

     If this sounds like you, you may be suffering from Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Generalized Anxiety Disorder is a common disease that can occur in proximately 5% of the population.

     It usually exists  with other conditions such as Major Depression.

     

  • 17

    불안 장애의 원인( Causes of Anxiety Disorders)

    연구자료에 따르면 불안 장애는 특정상황이 불안과 관련되었을 때 발생한다고 한다. 특정 상황에 대해 위험 정도와 피해 가능성을 과대 평가하게 될 경우에 생길 수 있다. 어떤 불안 장애를 가진 사람들은 그러한 특정 상황을 대처할 수 있는 자신의 능력을 과소평가하게 된다.

    수많은 뇌의 화학물질이 불안 장애와 관련되어져 있음이 발견되었다. 이러한 뇌 화학물질로는 노르에피네프린(교감신경 말단부에서 생성되는 호르몬의 일종), 세로토닌, 가바(GABA-아미노산의 일종)등이다. 뇌 스캔 연구를 통해 불안 장애를 가진 환자들의 뇌는 건강한 사람의 뇌와 특정부분이 다르다는 것이 밝혀졌다.

    물론 유전적인 요인이 있을 수도 있다. 불안 장애를 가진 가까운 친지가 있는 사람에게서 불안 장애를 앓을 가능성이 높을 수 있다.

     

    불안 장애의 치료법

     

    인지행동치료

    인지행동치료는 두가지 형태의 치료(인지치료와 행동치료)가 함께 병행되는 치료방법이다.

    인지치료는 환자가 자신이 두려워하는 생각들을 객관적으로 볼 수 있도록 도와준다. 주로 환자가 느끼는 두려움은 과장되어졌을 수도 있고 비이성적인 경우가 많다. 따라서 인지치료는 환자로 하여금 불안의 원인을 분석하고 대처할 수 있도록 돕는다.

    때때로 불안 장애를 가진 사람들은 두렵고 불안한 상황을 피하려고만 할 것이다. 이러한 행동들이 오히려 장차 더 많은 불안을 가져다 주게 된다. 따라서 행동치료는 환자가 어떻게 불안과 두려움을 점차적으로 대처할 수 있는지와 이러한 상황에서 도망가지 않는 방법을 가르쳐 준다.

     

     

    What causes Anxiety Disorders?

     

    There is some research that suggests that anxiety disorders develop when people learn to associate certain situations with fear. 

     

    They learn to overestimate the degree of danger and the probability of harm in certain situations. Some people with anxiety disorders also underestimate their own abilities to cope in certain situations. 

     

    A number of brain chemicals have been found to be associated with anxiety disorders. These brain chemicals include norepinephrine, serotonin, and GABA. Brain scan research has revealed that certain areas of the brain may be different in those people who suffer from an anxiety disorder. 

     

    There may also be a genetic component. Close relatives of people with an anxiety disorder tend to have a slightly higher chance of also suffering from an anxiety disorder.

     

     

    Treatment For Anxiety Disorders

     

    Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy 

     

    Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy is a form of treatment that involves two types of therapy. It involves Cognitive Therapy and Behaviour Therapy. Cognitive Therapy helps you to look at your feared thoughts. 

     

    Usually your fears are exaggerated or irrational. Cognitive Therapy helps you to examine and challenge your fears. 

     

    Sometimes people with anxiety disorders will avoid or escape fearful situations. These behaviours usually lead to more anxiety in the future. Behaviour Therapy teaches you how to gradually face your fears and not avoid or escape these situations


     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 16

    약물치료(Medications)

    항우울증치료제가 어느정도 불안 장애에도 도움이 된다. 초기에는 우울증 치료제로 개발되어져 왔으나 대부분의 불안 장애를 치료하는 데도 아주 뛰어난 효과가 있다는 것이 증명되었다. 항우울증치료제가 불안 장애를 일으키는 뇌 화학물질의 균형을 이루어주는 데 도움이 된다고 보기 때문이다.

    항우울증치료제의 부작용 중의 하나로 일시적으로 불안을 증가시킬 수 있기 때문에 의사와 반드시 상의해야 하며, 이러한 부작용을 방지하기 위해 아주 낮은 복용량으로 시작할 것을 의사가 권하게 될 것이다.

    일시적으로 생기는 부작용(초기 불안증가)은 대부분 1~2주가 지나면 사라지게 된다. 그러므로 의사가 한 두달에 걸쳐 항우울증치료제의 복용을 점차 증가시킬 수 있고 보통 우울증에 사용되는 복용량보다 더 높은 용량까지 처방할 수 있다.

    과학적인 연구를 통해 불안 장애를 치료하기 위해서는 항우울증치료제의 용량을 높여야 된다는 것이 증명되었다. 또한 효과를 보기에 좀 더 시간이 필요할 수 있다. 눈에 띄는 증상의 개선을 보려면 약을 복용한 지 8~12주 정도 걸린다. 좀더 자세한 내용은 "주요 우울증"에 나와있는 약물치료 부분을 참조하면 된다.

    벤조디아제핀(Benzodiazepines)계통의 약물들이 때때로 불안 장애를 치료하는 데 사용되어진다. 이 계통의 약물로는 발륨/성분명:다이아제팜(Valium/diazepam), 아티반/성분명: 로라제팜(Ativan/lorazepam), 리보트릴/성분명: 클로나제팜(Rivotril/clonazepam), 그리고 제넥스/성분명: 알프라졸람(Xanax/alprazolam) 등이다. 이러한 약물들은 일시적으로 불안을 치료하는 데 꽤 효과적이다. 그러나, 한번 복용하면 끊기가 어렵게 중독성이 매우 강할 수 있다. 그러므로, 위 약물들은 주로 3~6개월 정도 단기간 치료에만 사용되어진다.

     

     

    Medications 

    Antidepressants can be helpful for some anxiety disorders. Even though they were initially developed for depression, they have been scientifically proven to be helpful for most of the anxiety disorders. 

     

    It is believed that they help in balancing the brain chemicals that cause anxiety disorders. 

     

    Because one of the side effects of antidepressants can be a short term increase in anxiety, your doctor may tell you to start the antidepressant at a much lower dosage to prevent this. 

     

    The initial increase in anxiety will usually go away after 1-2 weeks. Your doctor may also gradually increase your antidepressant over a period of 1-2 months, to dosages that are higher than that used for depression. 

     

    Scientific research has shown that you may need higher dosages of antidepressants to treat some of the anxiety disorders. It may also take longer for the medication to work. 

     

    It can take 8-12 weeks of being on the medication before you see any significant improvement. See section on medications for Major Depression for more information.

     

    Benzodiazepines are a class of medications that are sometimes used in treating anxiety disorders. The common medications in this class are Valium/diazepam, Ativan/lorazepam, Rivotril/clonazepam, and Xanax/alprazolam. 

     

    These medications are quite effective in relieving anxiety temporarily. However, they can be quite addictive and difficult to stop. As a result, they are usually used for short periods of time, for example, 3-6 months only.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 15

    가족들을 위한 제안

    1. 불안 장애의 증상과 치료법에 대하여 가능한 많이 배워야 한다.

    2. 불안 장애를 앓는 가족이 약물치료와 프로그램을 받고 있는 것에 대해 전폭적인 지지가 필요하다.

    3. 불안 장애를 앓는 가족의 행동과 증상을 인격적인 결함을 가진 사람으로 봐서는 안된다. 단지 환자에        게 병은 일부에 지나지 않으며 환자라고해도 다른 면에서 건강하게 할 수 있는 일들이 많음을 기억해        야 된다.

    4. 불안 장애를 가진 가족의 행동들 (예를 들어, 특정상황을 회피한다든지 이상한 강박행동을 보인다든지 등)    에 개입하려고 하지 말고, 가족의 치료를 도와주고 있음을 설명하여야 한다. 만약 당신이 불안 장애를 가    진 가족의 행동에 자꾸 개입하려고 한다면, 정상적인 행동으로 되돌아오게 하기는 더 힘들 수 있기 때문     이다.

    5. 정상적인 가족 생활을 유지해야 된다. 가능한 한 불안 장애가 가족생활을 지배하지 못하도록 한다.

    6. 대화는 긍정적이고 분명하고 직접적으로 해야한다. 아픈 가족의 과거 행동에 대해 비판하려고 하지 말        고 지금 무엇을 원하는지를 분명하게 말한다.

    7. 침착성을 유지한다. 화를 내지 않도록 노력한다면 긍정적인 환경을 만들어 줄 수 있다.

    8. 아픈 가족을 돌볼 때 유머감각도 함께 유지한다. 아픈 가족을 돕는다는 것이 언제나 심각한 일만은 아니      다. 상대를 존중하면서 사용되는 유머는 아픈 가족이 병의 증상을 잊을 수 있는 데 도움을 줄 것이다.

    9. 만약 집에 어린 자녀가 있다면, 불안 장애를 가진 가족의 행동을 설명할 때, 가족이 병 때문에 그렇게 행    동하는 것이지 결코 아이들의 잘못이 아니라는 것을 확신시켜 주어야 한다.

    10. 우울증이 불안 장애와 수반될 수 있다. 자살시도를 암시하는 경고 및 징조에 대하여 배우고 다음의 연락     처등을 포함한 위급상황 대처계획을 만들어 두어야 한다. (아픈 가족환자의 정신과 의사 또는 가정의 연     락처, 911 또는 경찰서 연락처 등) 가능하다면 불안 장애를 가진 가족과 함께 이런 계획을 만들어 두어     라.

    11. 당신자신을 위해서도 신경써야 한다. 도움을 구하고 받음으로써 당신을 위해 스트레스를 덜 받는 환경       을 만드는 것, 당신만을 위한 취미를 가져보는 것, 당신의 에너지를 충전할 수 있는 시간을 매일 조금       씩 갖는 것등이 당신에게 아픈 가족을 돌볼 수 있는 힘과 에너지를 가져다 줄 것이다.

    12. 가장 중요하게 기억해야 될 것은 인생은 단거리 달리기가 아닌 마라톤과 같다는 것이다. 불안 장애를 가     진 가족을 최선을 다해 돌보는 동안, 미처 깨닫기도 전에 당신자신 마저 그런 불안에 익숙해져 있음         을 발견하게 될 것이다. 반복적인 생활에 익숙해져 버린 당신 자신에 대해 비판하지 말고 마찬가지로 아     픈 가족또한 비판하지 않도록 노력해야 한다. 다시 시작하면 된다.

     

     

    Suggestions For Families

     

    1. Learn as much as you can about the symptoms and treatments for anxiety disorders.

    2. Support your relative's medication and treatment program. 

    3. View your relative's anxiety behaviours, as symptoms not character flaws. Remember that your      relative is a person with a disorder, but who is healthy and capable in many other ways. 

    4. Do not participate in your relative's anxiety behaviours (for example: avoidance of certain        situations or unusual compulsions), and explain to your relative that you are doing this to help    support their treatment program. If you have fallen into the habit of participating in the anxiety    behaviours, it will take some practice to change back to more normal behaviours. 

    5. Maintain a normal family life. As much as possible, do not allow the anxiety disorder to take over. 

    6. Keep communications positive, direct and clear. State what you want to happen rather than    criticizing your relative for past behaviours. 

    7. Keep calm. Avoiding losing your temper will contribute to a positive atmosphere. 

    14

    양극성 장애 (조울증)(Bipolar Disorder)

    누구나 인생을 살아가면서 때로 감정의 변화를 경험한다. 우리의 감정은 하루에도 여러번 기쁨에서 슬픔으로, 흥분에서 지루함으로 변화될 수 있다. 하지만, 어떤 사람들에게는 이런 드라마틱한 감정의 변화가 일상생활에 지장을 주게 되기도 한다.

     

    이런 상황을 양극성 장애를 겪는다고 말한다.

     

     

     About Bipolar Disorder

     

    The essential feature of bipolar disorder (also called manic-depressive illness or manic depression) is a cyclic illness in mood which may shift from deep, frightening depression to extreme excitement, or elation. 

    The initial episode that leads to hospitalization is usually manic. Both sexes are equally affected. 

     

     

     

  • 13

    양극성 장애의 증상들(Symptom of Bipolar Disorder)

    조증 증상 : 의학적으로 조증의 가장 심각한 특징은 감정이 격양되고  과대망상적이 되며 과민해진다는 것이다. 조증의 증상으로는 다음에 열거한 증상의 일부 또는 전부를 포함한다.

     1. 어떤 활동에 지나친 양상을 보인다. 예를 들어, 무절제하고 난잡한 성교, 지나친 정치관여 그리고 종교적     인 집착, 말할 때의 빠른 속도—환자가 말을 할 때는 중단하기가 불가능할 정도이다.

    2. 생각하고 말하는 데 있어 한가지 아이디어에서 다른 것으로 너무나 빨리 바뀌기 때문에 집중하는데 어려   움을 겪는다.

    3. 수면시간이 줄어든다—매일  몇 시간밖에 잠을 자지 못하지만 에너지가 넘친다.

    4. 과대망상적으로 자신감이 넘친다—세상을 정복한 것처럼 느끼고 모든 것을 다 할 수 있는 능력이 있다        고 믿는다.

    5. 쉽게 주변의 소리나 사람들 그리고 냄새에 산만해진다.

    6. 한가지를 오래 몰두하기가 어렵다.

    7. 판단력이 저하된다—흥청망청 물건을 사게 되거나, 잘못된 사업판단을 할 수 있으며, 약물이나 알코올 중    독과 같은 위험한 행동을 할 수 있다. 자신이 무한한 능력과 영향력을 가졌다는 망상을 가질 수 있다.

    8. 조증의 상태가 극도에 이르면, 소리를 듣는다든지 반짝이는 색깔이나 불빛을 본다든지 등 환청/환각이 나   타날 수 있다.

     

    울증 증상 : 의학적으로 울증의 가장 심각한 증상은 감정이 슬프고 절망적으로 변화된다는 것이다. 울증의 심각성에 따라 다음에 열거된 증상을 부분 혹은 전부를 포함할 수 있다.

     1. 사람, 일 그리고 활동에 대한 흥미를 잃음.

    2. 에너지가 없으며 피곤하다..

    3. 식욕의 변화를 수반하여 몸무게가 많이 늘거나 줄어든다. 자신을 쓸모없는 사람으로 본다든지, 희망이 없다고 느끼거나 지나친 죄의식을 느낀다.

    4. 수면패턴의 방해가 온다—너무 많이 자거나 너무 적게 잔다.

    5. 생각이 느려지고, 자꾸 잊어버리고, 집중을 하거나 판단하는 데 어려움을 겪는다.

    6. 낮은 자존감과 자신이 부적격하다고 느낀다.

    7. 섹스에 관심이 없어진다.

    8. 쉽게 울거나 또는 울고 싶은데 그러질 못한다.

    9. 죽음이나 자살에 대해 생각한다.

     

     symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

    1. Manic episode: The critical clinical feature of a manic episode is a mood that is elevated, expansive, or irritable. Associated symptoms include part of or all of the followings:

     1. Excessively active in activities which often take the form of sexual promiscuity, political involvement, and religious concern. rapid in speech - the patient’s speech is pressured to a point of being impossible to interrupt.

    2. Difficulty in concentrating that thinking and speech move quickly from one idea to the next.

    3. Reducing in sleeping hours- often sleeps a few hours each night and yet has unlimited energy.

    4. Increased self-esteem to the point of grandiosity - the individual feels on top of the world, and being capable in achieving everything. 

    5. Easily get distracted by surrounding sounds, people or smells. 

    6. Short attention span 

    7. Poor judgment - may lead to buying sprees, bad business decision, or dangerous behavior such as abusing drugs or alcohol. having delusion which center on themes of unlimited power and influence. 

    8. Having hallucination such as hearing voices or seeing flashing colors and lights which may occur at the peak of the manic episode.

     

     2. Depressive episode:The critical clinical feature of a depressive episode  is a mood that is sad and despaired accompanied with part of or all of  the following symptoms depending on the severity of the depression.

     1. Loss of interest in people, work and …

  • 12

    양극성 장애를 극복하기 위하여 할 수 있는 일(What can you do to cope with your …

    양극성 장애를 가진 환자들은 병에 대해  좀 더 잘 대처하기 위해서 자신의 생활방식을 조금 변화시켜야 한다. 예로는 다음과 같다.

    1. 일상생활을 규칙적으로 유지한다. 예를 들어 수면패턴이나 운동등

    2. 술이나 마약을 금한다.

    3. 계속 일을 한다. (파트타임이나 풀타임 근무 또는 발런티어 일등)

    4. 가족, 친구, 교회 교우들과의 사회적인 접촉을 지속한다.

    5. 치료방법을 잘 따른다.

    6. 전문가의 도움을 구한다.

     

     

    What can you do to cope with your illness?

     

    People with manic depression may need to make some changes in their lifestyle in order to cope better with their illness, changes are such as:

     

    1. Keep regularity of daily activities e.g. sleeping pattern, exercise

     

    2. Avoid any alcohol and street drugs

     

    3. Keep working ( part-time, full-time or volunteer work etc.)

     

    4. Maintain social contact with family members, friends or church members etc.

     

    5. Compliance with treatments

     

    6. Seek for professional help


     

  • 11

    주요 우울증 (Major Depression)

    • 이유없이 무기력하다고 느끼는가?

    • 수면에 문제가 있는가?

    • 집중력과 기억력이 예전과 다르다는 것을 느끼는가?

    • 죽음에 대해 생각하는가?

    • 거의 매일 슬픔을 느끼는가?

    • 자신에 대해 가치가 없다거나 죄책감을 느끼는가?

    • 평소에 좋아하던 것에 더 이상 흥미를 느끼지 못하는가?

    • 식욕의 변화를 느끼는가?

      

    만약 위 질문에 대부분 “예” 라고 대답했다면, 당신은 주요 우울증을 앓고 있다고 볼 수 있다.

     

     

    MAJOR DEPRESSION

     

    Do you feel a loss of energy for no reason?

    Do you have sleep problems? 

    Do you notice that your concentration or memory is not as good?  

    Do you have thoughts of dying?  

    Do you feel sad almost every day?  

    Do you feel worthless or guilty?  

    Do you not enjoy things anymore?  

    Do you notice any changes in your appetite? 

     

    If you answered yes to most of these questions you may be suffering from Major Depression.

     

     


     

  • 10

    주요 우울증의 정의(Definition of Major Depression)

    주요 우울증은 의학적 질병이다. 그러므로 주요 우울증이 동반하는 첫 증상들은 피로, 수면변화, 식욕변화, 통증 또는 아픔 등의 신체적 증상으로 나타날 수 있다.

    모든 사람들이 때에 따라 안 좋은 일이 일어났을 경우 (예를 들자면, 사랑하는 사람을 잃었다든지 실직을 했다든지 등) 슬픔을 느낀다. 이것은 시간이 지나면 사라지는 정상적인 반응이다. 그러나, 만약 당신이 2주 이상 거의 매일 위의 열거한 신체적 증상들과 슬픔을 경험하고 있다면, 의학적인 질병인 주요 우울증을 앓고 있다고 볼 수 있다. 주요 우울증은 사람들이 잘 얘기하지 않는 흔한 질병이다.

    주요 우울증은 남자의 10~15 퍼센트, 여자의 15~25 퍼센트 정도가 앓고 있다. 만약 치료를 받는다면, 단기간 내에 (2~6주 이내에) 병이 개선될 가능성이 높은 병이기도 하다. 하지만 만약 치료를 받지 않는다면 6~18개월 정도 또는 장기간 병이 진행될 수 있다.

     

    What is Major Depression?

    Major Depression is a Medical Illness. Because it is a medical illness, many times the first signs of Major Depression can be physical symptoms such as fatigue, sleep changes, appetite changes, aches and pains etc…. 

     

    Everyone feels sad at times, especially when something bad has happened (for example, after the death of someone close to you or the loss of a job). This is a normal reaction if it goes away fairly quickly.

     

    However, if you are experiencing sadness and most of the above symptoms almost every day for 2 or more weeks, you may have a medical illness called Major Depression. This is a common disease which people don’t talk about.

     

    It affects 10-15% of men and 15-25% of women. If you get treatment, there is a high chance the illness can improve within a short period of time (within last 2-6 weeks). Without treatment, it may last 6-18 months or even longer.

     

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